In order to define a viable procedure for the implementation of the indigenous consultation process in agreement with national and international standards, various government bodies, including: Secretary of Government; The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples; Secretary of Agrarian, Territorial and Urban Development; Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources; Secretary of Energy and the National Institute of Anthropology and History; collaborated to develop a protocol focused on energy generation projects; so in order to propose the bases on which the process of prior consultation, free and informed, whose purpose is to try to reach agreement or obtain consent on the construction and operation of wind/solar parks.
This document retakes the content of “Protocol for the Implementation of Consultations to Indigenous Peoples and Communities in Agreement with Standards of Convention 169 of the International Labour Organization on Indigenous and Tribal peoples in Independent Countries” and the “Protocol of Action for those who Imparts Justice in Cases Involving Rights of People, Communities and Indigenous People”. They also picture other fundamental treaties relating to the right of consultation, such as the American Convention on Human Rights, as well as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, or the International Convention against all forms of racial discrimination. Emphasizes the inclusion of the “Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights” a as relevant component.
Since the obligation to comply with the indigenous consultation process is a duty that the Mexican state acquired by ratifying ILO Convention 169; it is natural that the Responsible Authority in the case of the projects of the energy sector is the Secretary of Energy, through the General Board of Social Impact and Superficial Occupation. However, whereas the necessary provisions for the appropriate conditions for conducting the consultation are part of the powers of the responsible authority, it is usual for the local authorities to be included in this area, at the state level and municipal.
The National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People, as a body empowered to “orient, coordinate, promote, support, follow-up and evaluate, projects, programs, strategies and actions public for the integral and sustainable development of indigenous people and communities ” It has a duty to lead the technical body, in agreement with the second article of the Law of the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People. It should be noted that it is possible to have the advice of a Technical Advisory Committee that can provide knowledge, substantive information and specialized analysis in the process of prior consultation. Also, it is foreseen the accompaniment of observers who attest to the correct practice of consultation, it is expected the participation of academic instructions and organizations of the civil society, proposed by both the community, the Authority Responsible or the Technical Committee.
Finally, the sub-secretary of Human Rights of the Secretary of Government, having the responsibility of coordinating, guiding and monitoring the work and tasks of protection and defense of human rights, of the dependencies and entities of the Federal Public Administration, serves as a guarantor of the indigenous consultation process for projects related to energy generation.
On the other hand, it is pertinent to determine which is the collective subject of law, to whom the consultation process is directed9 and their representative bodies; keeping in mind the principles of equality, transparency and culturally appropriate that govern all aspects of an indigenous consultation. It is also necessary to relate the matter on which the consultation is made and to be explicit in the objective that it is pursued, to try to achieve the necessary agreements or to obtain the consent for the construction and operation of the solar parks and wind parks.
It should be noted that the Company shall at no time have the character of the consulting authority, nor of the subject of consultation; although he considered an actor of interest, whose intervention is of utmost importance, because it is the one who must deliver in a timely and transparent way the information required for the informative phase. In this way, the company appears as an active participant, especially regarding the establishment of agreements between the company itself, the State and the indigenous communities; in conformity with the Nagoya Protocol and the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights; It may be necessary to negotiate on the fair and equitable participation of the benefits arising from the development of the project.
Metztli Sarai Hernández Garcia
Lic. Antropología Social por la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana.
Ha colaborado con la investigación etnológica en la Zona de Monumentos Arqueológicos El Tajín, y actualmente se desempeña como parte del Equipo Social en Natura Medio Ambiente.
- Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indigenas. (2005, Septiembre). Retrieved from Sistema de Consulta Indigena : http://www.cdi.gob.mx/normateca/dmdocuments/documento-normativo-para-el-sistema-de-consulta-indigena.pdf
- Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indigenas . (2013, febrero). Protocolo para la implementación de consultas a pueblos y comunidades indigenas de conformidad con estándares del Convenio 169 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, sobre pueblos Indigenas y Tribales en países independientes. Retrieved from https://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/252234/CDI_Protocolo_Consulta_Pueblos_Indigenas_2014.pdf
- Secretaría de Energía. (2017, enero ). Propuesta de protocolo genérico . Retrieved from Protocolo para la Consulta a la Comunidad Indígena XXX de XXX sobre la Construcción y operación del proyecto eólico/solar XXX.
- Secretaria de Gobernación. (s.f). PROTOCOLO PARA LA IMPLEMENTACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE CONSULTA PREVIA, LIBRE E INFORMADA SOBRE EL DESARROLLO DE UN PROYECTO DE. Retrieved from http://transparencia.energia.gob.mx/transparencia_focalizada/archivos/Protocolo_Consulta_Previa.pdf